Protecting Children from Harm in the Context of Distance Learning

The nation saw an uptick in domestic violence calls in the midst of the pandemic and the shutdown. The convergence of social isolation, economic pressure, and psychological stress created favorable conditions for abuse to occur. Adults are not the only victims of abuse in the home. Children, too, are vulnerable. History shows that violence against children and child exploitation intensify under conditions of isolation and economic pressure. While the pandemic may be temporary, child abuse often has long-term consequences.

School systems play a vital role in intervening in the lives of vulnerable children. In fact, schools make 21% of the reports to child protective services according to The Washington Post. When COVID-19 forced the schools to close, states saw a drastic drop in the number of children being referred to CPS. Unfortunately, this reduction did not mean that the incidence of abuse decreased. Indeed, as reports to CPS dropped, ER doctors saw a rise in more severe cases of abuse. Child abuse not only persisted, but it went unchecked during the shutdown. Without school personnel, community workers, medical and dental personnel, and other mandated reporters, there was no watchdog to report the abuse until children sustained injuries severe enough to warrant medical attention.

Clearly, schools serve a vital function in protecting children from harm. Now more than ever, they need to be alert and responsive to abuse as children return to school virtually. Distance learning presents unique opportunities and challenges that should be addressed proactively. Social workers can and should play a leadership role in adapting child welfare protocols for distance learning and retraining school personnel to identify and report suspicions of child abuse and neglect. This article outlines a proposed curriculum for child abuse and neglect reporting in the context of distance learning.

School personnel should be well-equipped to spot signs of child abuse and neglect in the context of distance learning. Asynchronous instruction affords teachers a glimpse into students’ homes. In addition to any disclosures of abuse, teachers should be especially attentive to:

  • Verbal threats of harm, hidden, unexplained, suspicious, and/or repeated injuries
  • Suicidal ideation in students
  • Sexually inappropriate behaviors or images
  • Weariness when an adult is present or approaches the student
  • Excessive dirtiness or lack of proper hygiene in the home or the student
  • Illegal substances or evidence of impairment in the caregiver
  • Evidence of malnourishment in the student

School staff should also note that it is illegal under most state laws for children to be home alone unless they have demonstrated sufficient maturity, and there are safety structures in place. Young children should not be home alone. Furthermore, children with a record of behavior or emotional problems (e.g. frequent suspensions) should not be in the home unattended. Children who are able to be home alone should be able to access safe adults in case of an emergency, and there should not be hazardous conditions or items present. Children who can take care of themselves may not be mature enough or capable of taking care of younger children. School staff members play a critical role in monitoring these conditions. Clear steps should be outlined for reporting any safety concerns or suspicions in a timely and accurate manner to school personnel (e.g. principal, guidance counselor) and child protective services.

Because teachers will be exposed to the live conditions of the home, they have to be prepared to respond to crisis situations. Crisis management in the context of distance learning is different from that in more traditional settings because the staff person is physically distant from the student, and there may not be another adult present with the child for reinforcement. As a result, they are at a disadvantage in terms of their ability to intervene.

Still, there are measures staff can take to manage the crisis from afar. In the event of an imminent threat to the safety of a student, staff can adapt telehealth protocols such as:

(1) call local 911/EMS while maintaining contact with the student

(2) identify bystanders who may be able to assist by providing information, monitoring the student, and/or intervening, as appropriate

(3) obtain the student’s physical location, an alternate contact in case of a disconnection or other technical issue, and contact information for the student’s caregiver

(4) while maintaining contact with the student, contact the caregiver to advise him/her of the situation

School personnel has an important responsibility in monitoring student attendance. Countless children can be lost to human trafficking and exploitation if schools falter in this duty. As such, the onus is on the schools to locate children who do not report for school. Students should be expected, at a minimum, to check in occasionally so that school personnel can check on their well-being.

Finally, school administrators should be cognizant of the increased risk of exploitation by school staff when supervision and monitoring are lacking. Clear codes of conduct should be put in place or adapted to guide online interactions between students and school staff. Outside meetups should be prohibited unless they occur at school during school hours with proper supervision. Administrators should ‘‘float’’ from class to class to monitor interactions and conduct in the virtual classrooms. Caregivers should also be encouraged to monitor online learning. An adult should be present at all times during synchronous sessions to supervise and provide support.

Schools play a critical role in protecting our most vulnerable population. Critical attention should be given to adapting child welfare protocols for distance learning so that school personnel can make the necessary efforts to be effective in this capacity under these unprecedented conditions. Social workers should proactively address this issue and retrain school staff in child welfare protocols.

Is My Child Safe Walking To School Alone?

Dangers of a Cross Walk
Dangers of a Cross Walk

Of course, the ideal situation would be for every mom to be able to personally drive their child to school, so all worries of what dangers lurk between home and school would cease to exist. Unfortunately, economic times have made this a luxury that only a few parents can afford. Most moms have to trust the bus drivers with their children or allow their children to walk to and from school.

It is a known fact that danger is everywhere at all times. Knowing this, mothers do tend to be overprotective at times. The following considerations should ease your mind and help you better prepare your child for a safe journey to school.

1) Planning the Route

If your schedule allows, it is always a good idea to walk with your child the first few times to ease any anxiety either of you may have. If this is not possible, consider doing a practice walk on a day that you do have time. This is important because it gives you a first person view of the potential dangers that your child may encounter on his way to school each day. As you detect obstacles or potential hazards, talk them over with your child. Give them guidance by providing solutions in advance should a problem arise. This will also provide an opportunity for them to ask questions, not to mention a great way to bond.

2) Cover the Basics

Whatever you do, don’t forget the basics. Most adults know that before crossing a street you are supposed to look left, right, then, left again. Sometimes, we forget that these were lessons that at some point were taught to us as well. So, do not assume that your child knows basic pedestrian safety protocol.

3) Crossing the Street

Now that you child knows the basics, it would be wise to get more in depth on road safety. If possible, plan to only cross where there are crossing lights or school crossing guards. Remind your child that not everyone follows the rules. So, even though the walk light may be lit, it is still better to check to make sure it is safe to cross. You may want to practice the school’s crossing guard hand signals so that he will know which one means it is safe to proceed.

It is imperative to stress the importance of yielding to traffic. Many children are killed each year in pedestrian and vehicular accidents. Some are even killed by their own school bus. According to Stokes & Kopitsky, “…motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. Children also top the list of at-risk victims in accidents involving trucks, buses, and bikes.” So, please make sure your child is as prepared and protected as possible.

4) Emergency Plan

“Stranger Danger” is still as prevalent today as it was decades ago. Though, your child may be taught some precautions at school, it is a good idea to have your own emergency plan in place. This is the technology era, so you may want to consider giving your child a cell phone for such situations. Using code words is another way to safeguard your children. Decide on a word that only you and your child knows to use in case you have to send someone the child doesn’t know to pick them up from school. The “stranger” would tell the child the code word to let them know that they can be trusted.

5) Proper Outerwear

It is a “no brainer” that you would want your children to be warm in the winter and cool in spring. However, your child’s outerwear may need a little more consideration in certain regions. In some places, the sun rises late on winter mornings and it sets as early as 5pm. This means that it is not only cold outside, it is dark. You may want to consider providing your child with a reflective jacket or vest during these times. There are actually some fashionable footwear and backpacks that twinkle, which could be an option as well. A flashlight may also come in handy to avoid tripping as well as injuries. It would definitely be a bonus for the ones who are a little afraid of the dark.

Making sure that your child attends school each day is a must. Parents who have to trust their children to walk alone may be fearful of what will happen in their absence. The best option is to try to find other kids your child can walk with, because there is safety in numbers. There may also be another mother available to supervise them during their walk. As a last resort, you can call your child’s school to check in on them each morning until you feel confident in your child’s ability to walk alone safely.

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