Twenty people per minute are physically abused by an intimate partner in the United States. On the more extreme level, a 2012 Upworthy article reported FBI statistics of 11,766 women killed by a husband or boyfriend between 2001 and 2012. By contrast, 6,488 American troops were killed in Iraq and Afghanistan during that same period.
In the Media
It appears there is a never-ending list of celebrities in the news regarding domestic violence which including new age musician Yanni and MASH star Harry Morgan. The problem is so extreme it sometimes feels like a contest for the most outrageous incident. One would hope the worst possible role model is Floyd Mayweather, Jr. Boxing fans seemed all too willing to overlook his violent behavior, making him the richest sportsman in the world in spite of repeated, lascivious attacks on women as if to suggest that as long as he can knock out Manny Pacquiao, then who cares how many women he knocks out?
Domestic violence in sports receives considerable scrutiny because of athletes’ role model status among youth. Plus, athletes have a high proportion of incidents, and the accusations are usually more extreme than just a bruised arm or lip. The two most recent football players to be accused of domestic violence sum up the whole of the situation pretty well.
Greg Hardy, of the Dallas Cowboys, was accused of attacking a woman at his home, including throwing her on a bed covered with automatic weapons and threatening to kill her. In court, the victim refused to appear, and there was a question of bias with the judge in admitting evidence. The case was dismissed, though Hardy was suspended by the league (but still received $13.1 million pay) for the majority of the 2014 season and the first 10 games of 2015. The 10 games was reduced to four games this past June.
In a somewhat similar turn of events, Ray McDonald was involved in a questionable circumstance last year with a woman he took home from a bar, and then again this year in a domestic assault charge against his fiance. The cases present with rather hazy evidence. His court case hasn’t been settled yet, but he has been released by two teams during the off-season. He might not ever play again, because no team seems to want him and not because of league intervention.
Why do the Dallas Cowboys want Hardy, who was suspended for his alleged incidents, while the Chicago Bears don’t want McDonald despite no suspension or charges? One plausible answer lies in economics. Hardy’s value is exceptionally high. Hardy has a one-year contract with Dallas that will pay up to $11.3 million based on performance. Hardy is only 26-years-old and has already had a more productive career than the 30-year-old McDonald.
Domestic violence is widely considered to be related to poverty. Athletes, though typically wealthy, often come from poor backgrounds. Even though NFL domestic abuse arrests are only half the national average, they are still higher than normal for people making over $75,000.
USA Today has a running tally of NFL player arrests that exhibits some trends. There are a lot of dropped or unresolved cases, particularly when it comes to domestic violence. Most charges have been filed for drug and DUI arrests. The league has also come down harshest on drug offenses. Meanwhile, teams have taken the liberty of releasing players involved in just about any incident, provided it has been a more dispensable player. With the two notable exceptions of Adrian Peterson and Ray Rice, most recent trends are that star players receive more favorable treatment.
To their credit the NFL and Major League Baseball appear to be trying by implementing new standards for personal conduct. However, it remains to be seen how player’s unions will react to strict disciplinary measures for players that have received no convictions in court.
Where’s the Consequence?
Domestic violence costs the U.S. $8.3 billion per year, $8 trillion globally. It’s more costly than any war. But the monetary cost is largely invisible. Social costs are far-reaching across generations and create cyclical problems. As the above link also shows, in domestic violence incidents involving children, only one in four are ever reported and perpetrators receive jail time only two percent of the time. Without consequences, the patterns repeat themselves over and over.
Domestic violence has only been treated as a crime in recent years. In the 1700s, England legally allowed husbands to enforce domestic discipline and, in 1910, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled to not give women recourse against husbands for assault or battery. It wasn’t until the end of the twentieth century that police were given ways to deal with domestic disputes and courts started protect the rights of battered women. Overall, the historical image of wives being property of the husband has only recently started to change.
When the victims and/or perpetrators have witnessed abuse growing up, have seen a lack of accountability, and generally do not have a deep understanding of right and wrong, the situation becomes even more complicated. In short, there is no quick and simple solution.
If you are victim of domestic violence or believe you may be in an unsafe relationship, please contact the national domestic violence hotline for more information and/or to speak with a crisis counselor.
How Social Workers Can Practice Trauma-Informed Care
Over the past few decades, there has been increasing recognition of the widespread and profound impact of trauma on individuals and communities. The results of an international mental health survey suggest that traumatic events have affected over 70 percent of the population, and can lead to prolonged physical and psychological harm.
These findings have transformed the field of social work, shifting the focus of education and training onto practices that recognize, support, and empower survivors of trauma. Referred to as “trauma-informed care,” this framework is especially important for social work professionals who have a high likelihood of encountering people with a history of trauma in practice settings.
Expanding the Definition of Trauma
Trauma-informed care starts with an understanding of the intricacies of trauma, and how it impacts individuals and communities. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), “trauma results from an event, series of events, or set of circumstances that is experienced by an individual physically or emotionally harmful or life threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual’s functioning and mental, physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being.”
For most people, the concept of trauma conjures up images of soldiers who have survived violent combat. Others may think about people who have been exposed to physical abuse, sexual assault or natural disasters. While these are some of the most distressing experiences that an individual can endure, trauma isn’t defined by an extreme event—it’s what the event means to the individual.
Trauma-informed social workers must take the time to understand a person’s unique perception and response to an event, taking into account the complex layers of identity, power, and oppression that contribute to trauma. Adopting this framework, researchers have expanded the definition of trauma to include the following categories:
- Complex trauma: The result of being exposed to repeated, ongoing, or simultaneous traumatic events, such as chronic neglect from a caregiver or long-term exposure to war conflict.
- Intergenerational trauma: This type of trauma is passed from those who directly experience trauma onto subsequent generations.
- Historical trauma: A type of intergenerational trauma that is experienced by specific racial, ethnic or cultural groups that accumulates across generations. Some experiences most commonly associated with historical trauma include the colonization and forced migration of Native Americans and the enslavement of African Americans.
- Institutional trauma: This is a type of trauma that occurs when institutions take actions that worsen the impact of traumatic experiences; for example, when a university covers up a sexual assault violation.
- Secondary trauma: Many helping professionals experience this type of indirect trauma, through hearing or witnessing the aftermath of a traumatic event experienced by a survivor. In addition to expanding the definition of trauma, the social work field has begun to outline some essential components of trauma-informed care.
Promoting a Sense of Safety
Trauma-informed social workers recognize that clients may have a history of trauma and prioritize creating an environment that feels physically and psychologically safe. Physical safety can be ensured by keeping areas well lit, monitoring who is entering and exiting the building and providing clear access to exits. Psychological safety involves a client’s feelings of trust in their relationship with the social worker, and can be ensured by modeling respect, consistency, acceptance and transparency.
Acknowledging and Reinforcing Patients’ Strengths
Many social service and healthcare professionals focus on diagnoses and interventions, framing symptoms as problems or weaknesses. Trauma-informed social workers, on the other hand, recognize that these symptoms are coping strategies in response to trauma. These practitioners highlight resilience and acknowledge strengths, cultivating hope for recovery and change.
Creating Opportunities for Choice
Trauma survivors often feel a sense of powerlessness, resulting from a loss of control and predictability in their experience of trauma. Trauma-informed social workers attempt to return the client’s sense of control by offering them choices and actively involving them in goal-setting and decision-making. As clients practice making decisions in the social work setting, they develop coping strategies and self-advocacy skills that support their functioning in the outside world.
Applying Your Knowledge
To maximize your impact as a social work professional, you need an extensive understanding of the latest theoretical perspectives, including trauma-informed care. An online master of social work program can help you acquire the conceptual knowledge and hands-on field instruction that you can apply to improve clients’ lives and achieve your professional objectives.
The Adelphi University Online Master of Social Work program brings decades of expertise and a legacy as a leading social work school to a flexible curriculum designed for working professionals. As a graduate student in the program, you’ll have the opportunity to engage with faculty members at the forefront of research on trauma-informed practices. Our graduates complete the program prepared to become Licensed Master Social Workers and fill the need for a skilled trauma workforce.
In A New World, Social Work Leads the Way
This is a sponsored article by California State University at Northridge
How Cal State Northridge is doing its part.
The pandemic, if nothing else, exacerbated the unequal distribution of resources in society. For millions of people, access to food, shelter, and health care is now more uncertain than ever.
What’s emerging is a new, somewhat dire need for experienced social workers – professionals able to compassionately address a disparate and evolving set of issues. Not only here in Los Angeles, but all over the world.
For much of the pandemic, the field has championed relief efforts, such as the rent moratorium. This provided a necessary, if temporary, reprieve from the daily fear of eviction. Outside of California, however, this moratorium is over. As are federal unemployment benefits.
And the impact is tragically visible. In California alone, the homeless population is over 151,000, with 41,000 of that in Los Angeles. And that’s just according to official estimates. The true number, allege some experts, may be much higher.
This is the sad, beautiful truth of social work. No matter where a client is, whether it’s in the classroom, at home, or on the streets, the field will be there.
But the field itself is evolving, too.
Following the death of George Floyd, social workers are increasingly involved in policing, augmenting first responders with a new option: one aiming to mitigate crisis and, as importantly, prevent the use of force.
As cities and states consider policing alternatives, social workers can help to ensure each community’s voice is heard, especially communities of color. Gaining popularity, the idea is to offer a more compassionate approach to law enforcement. Rather than responding with aggression, an arriving unit could instead respond with care, assessing the situation from a mental health standpoint, not one of criminality.
Likewise, opportunity youth – sometimes referred to as “at-risk” – now face many new challenges (among them, a skills gap from a year of remote learning). On top of food scarcity and uncertain housing, there’s also the real risk of contracting COVID. And for these youth, who often lack access to health care, this can be especially dangerous.
In all these cases, a humane approach is needed. Many social work programs incorporate hands-on experience, giving students access to the communities they’ll serve. One such program is the Master of Social Work (MSW) at California State University, Northridge (CSUN).
Unlike many social work programs, CSUN’s MSW expands participants’ career possibilities by offering a generalist approach. This enables graduates to work at ALL levels of the field: individual/family (micro); group/community (mezzo); and societal/policy (macro).
The program is offered fully online in two- and three-year formats. The two-year option is a full-time program with an intensive curriculum designed to help students complete their degrees and enter the field in as little time as possible. The three-year option, on the other hand, is an excellent choice for those who would prefer the same curriculum at a less intensive pace.
The master’s degree, which is often ranked among the best in the country, promotes the well-being of urban communities. Through its curriculum, participants learn how to assess a community’s needs from the inside, in large part through active listening.
As the field continues to evolve, those who comprise it must evolve too. That begins with knowledge of the new world, but ends, as it always has, with the people who need us most – the ones for whom we care.
Technology and Entrepreneurship in Social Work
After helplessly watching her sister try to navigate the international adoption process, Felicia Curcuru launched Binti in an effort to reinvent foster care and adoption. Since the launch of the company in 2017, Binti has expanded its network to over 190 agencies across 26 states in the U.S. The software Binti creates helps social workers and others who work in foster care to effectively approve 80% more families and decrease their administrative burden by up to 40%.
Jimmy Chen, a Stanford graduate and the son of struggling immigrants from China, created Propel in 2014 after noticing that Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients needed to call a 16-digit phone number to check their balance. In order to check their balances, some of the recipients would resort to strategies such as buying cheap items such as bananas. Currently, the Propel app helps 5 million households who are eligible for SNAP benefits to manage their finances!
Besides using technology and entrepreneurship to transform human service systems, what do these companies have in common? They were not started by social workers.
Technology and Entrepreneurship in Social Work
Technology and entrepreneurship have and will continue to transform our profession. But social workers have stayed on the sidelines of this creative process for too long. If we are to be successful in effectively disseminating our incredible values and pushing forth the mission of social work, social workers must play a more direct role in embracing the movements of technology and entrepreneurship.
This is not a new concept. Research articles on technology and entrepreneurship in social work have been published for years, and the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) has published reports on technology in social work. Furthermore, universities such as Columbia University in New York have embraced the movement, and have created a minor for social workers called “Emerging Technology, Media, and Society,” which trains social workers to understand the latest developments in the world of technology. Finally, thousands of social workers operate their own private practices and embrace the benefits of entrepreneurial practices.
This slow, yet continuous shift towards technology and entrepreneurship is important, but it must be accelerated. The question still remains: how do we enable social workers to embrace the power behind technology and entrepreneurship? Here are some ideas:
Enabling Social Workers to Embrace Technology and Entrepreneurship
First and foremost, social work curricula must embrace technology and entrepreneurship. The curricula must incorporate mandatory courses on technology and entrepreneurship, and these courses should be taught by experts in these fields.
Social work departments must enable field placements for social workers in technology or startup environments. By being a part of successful organizations in these spaces, social work students can be exposed to this type of thinking and be inspired by the possibilities!
Social workers themselves must take time to explore and learn about these fields. Although it is difficult enough to maintain our mental health while managing our caseloads, we can utilize the time we spend on webinars or Continuing Education Units (CEUs) to take classes in technology and entrepreneurship.
Social workers can become intrapreneurs, or employees that create new projects from within organizations and businesses. For example, during my time at a community mental health organization, I helped launch a social media channel for the organization’s therapists, which allowed us to feel more connected, share resources, and learn from one another.
As social workers, we uphold an ethical code that enables us to represent the most marginalized members of our society. But we can only do this effectively by embracing the intersection between technology, entrepreneurship, and social work. Although there is no silver-bullet answer, we can help social workers gain entrepreneurial and technological skills by broadening the education available to social work students and ourselves so that we can all better understand the possibilities that are out there.
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