Paid Maternity Leave: A Policy Imperative

Living in a country so focused on the reproductive behaviors of women, from contraception to abortion, it seems preposterous that despite the myriad policy imperatives that want to control women’s fertility, there is no federal policy that supports our decision to give birth by granting us paid maternity leave.

Maternity Leave in America: Where are we at?This policy gap is even more significant given that the USA is the only industrialized nation not to mandate paid maternity leave and is one of only a handful of countries globally that does not. The countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) average 18 weeks of paid maternity leave. Maternity leave is a social, economic and health policy that has broad and significant impacts for individuals, families, organizations and nations.

(For reasons of brevity and simplicity I am deliberately focusing on maternity leave but it is important to note that many national and organizational ‘maternity’ leave polices are subsumed within parental policies that apply to both mothers and fathers).

Family and Medical Leave

In the USA, the primary policy related to maternity leave is the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) which puts various kinds of family-related leaves into one unpaid 3 month pot which includes leave for caring for a parent and leave for caring for an child. However, New Jersey, Rhode Island and California provide state-funded paid family and medical leave that includes pregnancy and childbirth. These policies are paid for by employee-paid payroll taxes and distributed through disability programs – with ‘disability’ being an unfortunate, if economically useful, way of categorizing pregnancy and birth.

If they do not work for one of the top law firms of the Vault 100 or a Fortune 500 corporation that competes for top talent and grant paid maternity leave to attract and retain employees, women are generally out of luck. If you are a woman with a ‘regular’ job, what do you do when you get pregnant or have just given birth? You have to take upaid leave at a time when your expenses have increased. Thus many women return to work within weeks of birth. Though some women try to continue to breastfeed, not many workplaces allow for convenient pumping and so women find themselves having to wean their infants because of workplace conditions in addition to their ‘early’ return to the paid workforce.

Many feminist activists do not want to ‘provoke’ a paid maternity leave policy because they think it makes women stand out as needing different (special) treatment than men. The fact is we are different from men and therefore need different policies related to our health and well-being. We incubate human beings for 9 months. We also have breasts that can be the sole nutritional source for infants for more than 6 months. This highly differentiates women’s parenting roles from that of males, regardless of how egalitarian a construct we may consider parenting to be.

Gender and Class Differences

In order for women to get the policies we want, we should acknowledge the difference, own the power in that difference, and demand what we need to take care of the next generation. The absence of child benefits, dearth of subsidized high-quality childcare, costly access to healthcare, low-performing public schools and high tuition costs for tertiary education are evidence of a government that talks about supporting families while neglecting the policies that would do so.

Not many women can afford to take unpaid leave and the women who work for companies were paid leave is a perk are more likely to be able to afford to take an extended leave without being paid while doing so. By making work incompatible with motherhood, women are forced to make hard choices between taking care of their children and being in the workforce, and men are forced to make this choice. Leaving the workforce because of motherhood not only reduces present income, it also limits lifetime income on which pensions are calculated while maintaining and expanding the income gap throughout the lifespan.

Our social welfare policies push poor women to work and yet social norms push middle class and wealthy women to stay home. Taking care of one’s own child should not be an economic luxury. Our economic and social policies recognize childcare as a ‘job’ only if someone other than a parent is taking care of a child. If a woman is taking care of her own child, her contribution to the economy and society is not ‘officially’ acknowledged by society at large.

For women who qualify for subsidized childcare, it is counterproductive and expensive to pay so much more money for a non-parent to care for a child while being unwilling to support a woman to take care of her own child. With regard to paid maternity leave and subsidized childcare, it is clearly not just about money, but it is about values.

The Wage Gap

Maternity leave is a key factor in the gender gap in wages and employment and in the ‘family gap’ in income that exists between women with children and women without children. Forty to fifty percent  of the gender gap income can be explained by the family gap differential due to marital and parental status among women.

The absence of paid maternity leave in the USA has been perceived by feminists and public health professionals as anti-woman, anti-child and anti-family because it does not provide income for woman post-childbirth nor does it support the 6-month breast-feeding recommendations of the American Pediatric Association.

Health Outcomes

There is no coincidence in having no paid maternity leave and the poor health outcomes we have for infants/children in this country. This is not to say that this is the only policy to blame as health policies are also significant contributors to poor health outcomes in mothers, infants and children. Policy ‘obsession’ with humans in utero do not continue once children are born.

There is little regard for comprehensive sexual health education for children and adolescence and too much attention paid to contraceptive choice and abortion. Once the child is born, our social welfare and health policies leave all but the poorest of mothers to fend on their own. The poorest women qualify for Medicaid and WIC (Women, Infants and Children). This is reflected in lack of affordable, high-quality childcare, poor performing public schools, juvenile justice facilities that are full to overflowing, low high school graduation rates and college costs that leave young adults mired in debt.

The Price of Motherhood

The price of motherhood should not be so financially challenging. Is possible women in developing nations will simply choose to opt out of the motherhood game altogether? Though the fact that American women continue to give birth at such high rates despite a social welfare net that has very large holes is a social policy paradox that is not easily understood. The demographic and economic challenges of low birthrates are not so easily fixed by social policy. Doing research on this topic for an economics class on gender and family, it was really hard to find a rationale for the resistance to paid maternity leave in the USA so I’m not sure why we are stuck in some sort of policy dark age along with universal access to health care.

Where Do We Go From Here?

In 2010, Ernst and Young was listed among the top 10 family friendly companies by Working Mother Research Institute, provides new mothers with 12 weeks paid leave and 10 weeks unpaid leave. Bank ofAmerica, which was also on the top 10, gives a paid leave to either gender of 12 weeks and allows them to take a total of 26 weeks. These organizations are profit-making institutions that would not be handing out benefits if they did not make economic sense. Getting good benefits lead to staff loyalty that reduces the costs of staff turnover. Furthermore, the costs of educating and training women get recouped over time when women are retained in the workforce.

For women who are joining the workforce, paid maternity leave should be a consideration when deciding on potential employers because the economic, social, health, personal and family benefits that result from such policies contribute much to our overall well-being and that of our families and society at large.

As is the norm in the USA, paid maternity leave is a social and health policy that is attached to employment and an employer. This leaves women at the whim of the workforce. Paid maternity leave should be a federal concern and not dependent on the whims of workplace or state policies.

Women Concerns as Social Workers in the Workplace

On June 17th, 2014, Social Work Helper Magazine co-hosted a Virtual Town Hall with National Association of Social Workers (NASW -NC) by simultaneously conducting a Live Twitter Chat and Facebook Forum to identify concerns of women as social workers in the workplace. The town hall was held in preparation for the upcoming White House Summit on Working Families on June 23rd, 2014. Participants were asked to host local events in order to help identify priorities for the summit, and  As Editor-in-Chief of Social Work Helper Magazine, I will be in attendance at the Summit with President Obama.

working_families_summit_social_inviteAs a female dominated profession, approximately 80 percent of social workers are women, yet men overwhelming hold key leadership, administrative, and executive positions. The virtual town hall explored issues such as gender pay equity, sick leave, maternity leave, promotion/retention, workplace discrimination, and workplace safety. 

The key issues arriving from the live twitter chat were pay equity and the need for national unionization comparable to teachers, nursing, and law enforcement. The Facebook Forum most active discussions were workplace safety and the ability to use sick leave for self-care when needed. However, the consensus from both platforms is that no one felt safe reporting issues of with pay equity, sick leave, maternity leave, promotion/retention or workplace safety.  Dr. Michael Wright a professor at Tennessee State University who participated in the live Twitter chat stated, “When your job is what stands between you and homelessness, you don’t rock the boat”.

One woman made a profound statement in which I hid her comment from public view to help prevent any retaliation whether real or perceived. She expressed concern about hoping her comment does not hurt her job, but she also expressed the need to share with people who may understand.

As a woman who was out in the field with another woman three weeks ago when I was assaulted by a client with a brick in the head, I’m really tired of having safety training on fire extinguishers (which there are none in my building and it’s been evacuated due to fire twice in six months), but none on what I could have done differently when faced with a psychotic child with a brick. I love my job, but don’t feel I can turn a blind eye this time. Something needs to change. #workplacesafety

Law enforcement officers which is a male dominated profession requires at minimum a high school diploma and are often paid higher than an entry level Master of Social Work graduate working in the public sector of a female dominated profession. Despite both jobs being classified as hazardous by local, state, and federal agencies, social workers are often denied comparable overtime, time off, and other benefits given to law enforcement officers. When social workers witness or experience trauma or fatalities, there is no mandatory counseling or fitness for duty assessment to ensure the social worker is emotionally prepared for duty.

Social workers have  been denied the additional workplace safety protections given to law enforcement officers despite both law enforcement and social workers operating under statutory authority and hazardous conditions in the public sector. Some agencies do not even provide social workers with an agency vehicle or cell phone, and social workers are often required to utilize personal assets in order to perform job duties. Social workers are not given any self-defense, no radios, have no weapons, no backup, are often alone, and have no communications center to call for help to know someone is coming.

According to a 2007 Hill Briefing on Social Work Safety Issues,

A disturbing trend of violence against social workers and other human service professionals was mentioned in a letter sent to legislators by the bill’s sponsors. In April 2005, a woman in Texas fired a shotgun at two social workers visiting her home. In March 2006, The New York Times reported that Sally Blackwell, a social worker, was found dead in a field just outside of Austin, Texas. Throughout the investigation, her family said that threats were a daily part of Sally’s life as a social worker investigating accusations of child abuse and neglect with the power to remove children from their homes.

Two surveys conducted by the National Association of Social Workers in the last few years have found that job-related violence and the threat of such violence are common. In a 2002 survey, among 800 social workers, 19 percent had been victims of violence, and 63 percent had been threatened. In a 2006 national study of the licensed social work labor force, 44% of 5,000 respondents said that they face personal safety issues in their primary employment practice.

The current bill, H.R. 2165, would establish a grant program to provide for safety measures such as GPS equipment, self-defense training, conflict prevention, facility safety and more. It would also help with educational resources and materials to train staff on safety and awareness measures. The bill calls for Congress to authorize $5 million per year for the next five years and require states to provide 50 percent matching funds.  Read Full Briefing

Unfortunately, this bill and many others to address the debt of becoming a social worker do not go anywhere in Congress. Social Workers are often under a mountain of student loan debt in order to provide services to those within the margins. The unfortunate part is that many social workers and  social work students working in mandatory unpaid internships are living in the margins along with their clients. Many are having to rely on public assistance and programs in order to make ends meet and take care of their families.

Last year in New Orleans, a social worker named Ashley Qualls was murdered on her way home. Social Work Helper did a story on Ashley Qualls’ death when A&E First 48 Hours aired an episode with the detectives who continue to look for those responsible for her death.

Tulane School of Social Work graduate, Ashley Qualls, was working at a substance abuse treatment center when she was gunned down while walking home from work. Although Ashley was from South Carolina, she moved her family to New Orleans believing they would have more opportunity in a larger city. Each day, she rode public transportation to work, but at night she was forced to walk the 3.5 miles home because public transportation had stopped running. Read Full Article

It is my hope that events such as the White House Summit for working families will begin to acknowledge the specific challenges women working as social workers face in the workplace in order to serve others and take care of their own families. To view the storify of the Virtual Town Hall, you can visit this link.

Family and Maternity Leave Around the World: How Does the USA Measure Up?

Maternity-leave-chart-final

In the last few decades, women have been dominating the workforce because having a single income family is no longer enough to maintain a middle class living. More importantly, women enjoy and want to have careers and be contributors in the workforce. However, women have increasingly faced challenges in balancing work with parenthood especially with the lack of paid maternity leave.

This imbalance has created a need for substantial policy in areas such as child care assistance, reproductive rights, and family medical leave. Women who become pregnant have to take time off work for recovery time, doctor visits, and to allow appropriate time for mother and child to bond. Due to the high expense of daycare,  many women cannot afford to work full-time and being to cover day care expenses.

Often daycare expenses cost higher than what the average working mother will earn in a 40 hour work week. This cost analysis and barrier prevents many families from rising above the poverty level. In addition,  many women, married and unmarried, often have the burden of the “ unpaid second shift” which is taking on many of the domestic duties at home as well.

Some of the policy changes around the world came as a result of needed parental leave and a preschool provisions for children until the age of six. Germany and France were two of the first countries to get maternity leave. Currently, 128 countries provide paid and job protected child-birth leave. The primary factor which determines the way a country or state gives this benefit varies from place to place. However, it is important to note that some places provide longer leave times than others. For example, the United States has largely decided to make the majority of maternity leave in this country unpaid.

Eighty eight countries provide allowances for families, to help with raising them, and the United States is the only country which provides no such family allowances. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United States is the single least generous country in relation to its treatment of families.

It is disconcerting that the US and Australia are the only two countries that offer no federally mandated paid maternity leave. This is a huge barrier for families and single parents raising children. Notably, France is one of the countries that has provided the most benefits for women on maternity leave such as increased leave when having more children. For example, the child rearing benefit is more if they have more than two children.

The way the a state or country attacks these problems tells provides great insight into how they value maternity leave and child rearing. Out of all the countries studied, the United States lagged behind all others in the support and balance they give to families.  Daycare was another benefited proved by many as a public services in countries like Germany. While many of the OECD countries provide this daycare regardless of income, the US only provides assistance for the abused and low-income.

The policies of Sweden and France are able to help provide women the ability to balance family and work. Whereas in the US, there are a large number of children at the poverty level due to policy decisions that do not support women and children post birth. Because of the lack of assistance in the United States, many women in single and working class families cannot afford to have day care, unless there is some subsidized program they can participate in.

Many women are forced to limit the time they work until their children begin school age. Public awareness on this issue needs to be increase in order to promote more advocacy and policy changes in these areas. Write your representatives on this matter, go in groups to speak to legislators, and set up community awareness events in your community.

I think the United States could learn from many of the policies and practices of countries like Sweden and France. This would give us the same opportunity to work full-time and pursue the American Dream. I think these countries as well as the other countries in the OECD have done a far better job to address the gender differences of women and men. As far as the United States, I feel that our policy makers have let us down. It’s unfortunate that many policy makers do not realize that addressing these issues affecting women would be the best policies to uplifting everyone.

Conway, M. (2004). Women and Public Policy: A Revolution in Progress (3rd ed., pp. 175-189). N.p.: CQ Press

Henderson, S., & Jeydel, A. (2009). Women in Politics in a Global World (2nd ed., pp. 144-169). N.p.: Oxford University Press’ Higher.

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